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Review profiles on doctors, including education, specialties and experience.

Areas of Practice

Learn more about our areas of expertise: Fractures, Sports Injuries, Joint Replacements, Work Injuries, Neck and Back Pain, Motor Vehicle Injuries.

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Follow recent news updates on the Finger Lakes Bone & Joint Center and our doctors.

Welcome to the Finger Lakes Bone & Joint Center

Orthopedic Surgeons Serving Rochester NY & The Finger Lakes Region

For orthopedic surgery that can repair and restore function to limbs and joints, Finger Lakes Bone and Joint Center is a talent in preventative and rehabilitative procedures. For sports injury, neck pain, joint pain and a range of other debilitating symptoms, Finger Lakes Bone and Joint Center is your best chance in the Finger Lakes, NY region for top tier joint replacement and orthopedic surgery.

Our Physicians

Dr. Daniel Alexander

Dr. Daniel Alexander is the owner of Finger Lakes Bone and Joint Center. Born and raised in Buffalo and a former lieutenant in the Buffalo Fire Department, Dr. Alexander received his medical degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo....

Dr. Christopher Brown

A specialist in sports medicine focusing on the shoulder and knee, Dr. Brown has had the opportunity to work at a variety of world class institutions while providing care for athletes both on and off the field. Dr. Brown also serves as...

Dr. David Cywinski

Dr. Cywinski, raised in Buffalo, NY, has an interesting background which includes 14 years as a Fayetteville, NY firefighter and as a paramedic instructor at SUNY Health Science Center. His BA degree in Biology was obtained at the State University...

Dr. Peter Stasko, DPM

Peter Stasko, DPM is board certified in foot, reconstructive rear foot, and ankle surgery through the American Board of Foot and Ankle Surgery. He is also a fellow of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Peter Stasko, DPM,...

Scott Mattoon, RPA-C

After graduating from Midlakes High School, Scott enlisted in the United States Army, where he functioned as a combat medic for over three years. After serving as a medical specialist in the 28th Combat Support Hospital, Scott was honorably discharged...

Dr. Paul Stasko, DPM

Paul Stasko is a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine who completed undergraduate at SUNY Brockport where he played Varsity ice hockey and earned his degree in Biology.  He attended podiatry school at Des Moines University-College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.  After...


Joint Commission National Quality Approval Seal
Newark-Wayne Community Hospital named Orthopedic Joint Center of Excellence by Joint Commission! Congratulations to the surgeons, surgical team, and staff at Newark-Wayne Community Hospital for achieving The Joint Commission’s Gold Seal of Approval® for its total knee and hip replacement program. Newark-Wayne now joins Rochester General, Unity, and United Memorial Medical Center as Rochester Regional Health’s fourth accredited Orthopedic Joint Center of Excellence. The Joint Commission Gold Seal is a symbol of Newark-Wayne’s commitment to providing safe and effective patient care. Thanks to everyone involved for their dedication and hard work in achieving this incredible milestone!

Recent News

Dr. Brown on Good Day Rochester

3 / 09 / 2015 / 0 comments

Dr. Brown stopped by Good Day Rochester to discuss what steps parents can take to ensure their kids and teens stay injury free and safe while enjoying sports.

Parents and coaches should encourage early warm-up and cool-down, keeping hydrated, and an open line of communication with athletes.

Dr Brown On Fox Rochester



Watch the video here



Joining forces with Powertrain

August 31, 2015 / 0 comments

Dr Brown and Brownstone Physical Therapy join forces with Powertrain to promote injury prevention and performance enhancement with local Rochester high school football team.

Why You Should Be Doing Yoga

August 19, 2015 / 0 comments

Yoga is indisputably the hottest exercise trend in America. It has risen in popularity since a boom in public interest in the 1980s, and today it is practiced by more than 20 million people in this country.

We have mentioned that yoga is an excellent low-impact exercise for older adults because it helps you stay flexible and strengthens your core muscle groups. But yoga is certainly not just for older adults, and it does much more than make you more flexible. Yoga offers some pretty amazing benefits to physical and mental health for people of all ages.


1.  It reduces chronic pain.

The physical component of yoga is intended to stretch and strengthen specific muscle groups. Doing yoga has been shown to reduce chronic pain, especially lower back pain. In addition to the benefits gained by stretching and toning your muscles, the meditation component of yoga is effective at reducing our perception of pain. One study found that people who meditated reported a 40% reduction in pain intensity and a 57% reduction in pain unpleasantness. These numbers indicate that meditation may be more effective than morphine at reducing pain.


2.  It increases respiratory efficiency and helps with asthma.

Focused breathing is a fundamental part of yoga. Its spiritual purpose is for the cultivation of life force and the attainment of higher awareness, but it also leads to a larger lung capacity and a slower rate of breathing. These effects are beneficial for anyone but especially helpful for those with asthma.


3.  It activates the parasympathetic nervous system.

The human autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts. The sympathetic nervous system governs high-stress, “fight or flight” scenarios; the parasympathetic nervous system is referred to as the “rest and digest” system that operates in low-stress situations. When one system is active, the other is dormant. Our bodies are healthiest when there is a regular cycle between the two.
The high-speed and high-stimulation nature of modern life tends to create a bias for activating the sympathetic nervous system, which can leave us feeling stressed and exhausted. Practicing yoga activates the parasympathetic nervous system and trains us to use it more frequently, which helps restore the proper balance our bodies need. A more active parasympathetic system means lower blood pressure, better digestion and intestinal mobility, and regular sexual functioning.

parasympathetic nervous


4.  It normalizes body weight and helps prevent obesity.

Even though you won’t lose as much weight doing yoga as you will with high-intensity cardio, regular practitioners of yoga lose five pounds on average. But the really impressive thing is that yoga helps prevent fluctuations in your weight by balancing your hormones.

It has been scientifically proven that doing yoga reduces levels of cortisol, a stress hormone. Cortisol is fine in moderate levels, but excessively high levels of cortisol have been shown to elicit “food-seeking behavior” in lab rats. You may have heard this phenomenon referred to as “stress eating.”

When our cortisol levels are lower, we are less prone to overeat, and we feel more sated when we do eat because our bodies are not on the alert. All of this translates to less unintentional weight gain.


5.  It improves emotional health and combats depression.

Excessive levels of cortisol are linked not only to overeating, but also to depression, so yoga also lowers the prevalence of depressive states. Additionally, less cortisol and increased parasympathetic nervous system activation reduce stress. People who practice yoga report an improved overall mood and sense of well-being.


6.  It improves learning, memory, and cognitive functioning.

Research has shown that yoga has positive effects on cognition that cannot be matched by conventional forms of aerobic exercise. The meditative component is likely to thank for this since its purpose is to calm the mind and ward off distracting thoughts. In one study conducted on college undergraduates, participants who did yoga and meditated were better able to focus their mental resources, process information quickly, and retain that information accurately.
Learning and Memory


7.  It promotes self-awareness and empathy.

Spiritually, yoga is all about being aware of ourselves and the present moment. Holding poses, focusing on our breath, and meditation help us quiet our minds so we can reflect on who we are, where we are in our lives, and where we are going. The self-awareness we get from yoga increases feelings of self-actualization, and we may even feel more motivated to pursue our goals.

As well as helping us feel better about ourselves, yoga also makes us feel more connected with other people and increases our empathic responses. It trains us to be less hostile toward ourselves and others.


8.  It is possible that it physically changes the brain.

It turns out that yoga affects not only the body, but it may also affect the composition of the brain. A recent study found correlational evidence that practicing yoga may protect against the decline in gray matter volume that happens as people age. MRIs of yoga practitioners revealed they had gray matter volumes comparable to people who were much younger than them, which means they were losing gray matter at a much slower rate than people who did not do yoga.

Most interestingly, the observed protection of gray matter was mostly in the left hemisphere of the brain, which is associated with positive emotions and the parasympathetic nervous system. More gray matter in these parts of the brain means a greater ability to be happy and relaxed. So it’s possible that yoga keeps us happier and more relaxed as we age by affecting the physical properties of our brains.

Most interestingly, the observed protection of gray matter was mostly in the left hemisphere of the brain, which is associated with positive emotions and the parasympathetic nervous system. More gray matter in these parts of the brain means a greater ability to be happy and relaxed. So it’s possible that yoga keeps us happier and more relaxed as we age by affecting the physical properties of our brains.


The body of scientific research on the beneficial effects of yoga continues to grow, but even now we have compelling evidence of the good it can do. Whether you are struggling with a physical malady like obesity, high blood pressure, or chronic pain, or you have emotional issues such as depression and chronic stress, yoga can help. Even if you do not have an illness and simply want to be a happier, more fulfilled person with a real sense of purpose, it can also provide your solution.

Each item in this list taken alone is an impressive statement about the power of yoga; together, they paint a clear picture of why you should definitely be doing it.

Why You Should Be Doing Yoga

Buffalo Bills Training Camp Activity

23 / 07 / 2015 / 0 comments

Fan of the Buffalo Bills? Our very own Dr. Brown will be participating in a sports injury prevention event held at the Buffalo Bills training camp. This is a free community event taking place on August 7th from 9am – 12pm.

It’s a great opportunity to learn more about on and off field injuries and see your favorite NFL team in action. Registration is required and can be completed at http://www.rochesterregionalhealth.org/A-special-Rochester-Regional-Health-Sports-Medicine-event/.

Look forward to seeing you at the event!

Bills Training Camp Activity

7 Stretches to Keep You Feeling Great

July 21, 2015 / 0 comments


Stretching is an excellent way to avoid injury and increase your flexibility. You should always stretch before exercising, but it’s also beneficial even if you aren’t preparing to exert yourself. And it always feels great to loosen up stiff muscles.

We already mentioned stretching in a previous post, but today we will go more in depth on the subject. Your stretching routine should ideally include all of your major muscle groups. We’ve chosen seven stretches you can perform to touch on many of them, from your head to your feet, but the list is by no means exhaustive.

Read on if you’re ready to limber up.


1.  Head Tilts and Rotations

This stretch is great for relief from stiff neck muscles. Stand with your back straight or sit upright in a chair, and square your shoulders. Tilt your head sideways toward each shoulder and hold it there for 5-10 seconds. You can hold it with your hand if you like. Next, rotate your head toward each shoulder without moving your back, and hold the stretch for 5-10 seconds. You’ll feel a pull on your neck muscles as they are lengthened. Perform this cycle a total of five times.

2.  Behind-the-Back Arm Raise

If you slouch a lot, this stretch is the perfect remedy. While standing or sitting upright, clasp your hands behind your back and then raise your arms as high as you can. You’ll feel the burn in your triceps and the outer edges of your pectoral muscles. Hold for 30 seconds and repeat twice. Bad posture shortens the muscles in your chest, but regularly doing this stretch will help combat the effect.

3.  Standing Side Stretch

For an all-body stretch that focuses on your abdominal obliques and your arms, begin by standing straight and with your feet together. Raise your arms above your head and clasp your hands with your forefingers extended. Inhale as you reach upward. Then exhale as you bend at the waist to one side. Take five slow breaths as you hold the stretch, and then return to center. Repeat on the opposite side, and then do the whole routine once more.

4.  Seated Back Twist

This is another great full-body stretch, but this one targets your obliques, back muscles, and glutes. Start by sitting on the floor with your legs straight. Bend your right leg at the knee and step your foot over your left leg, placing your right foot next to your left knee. Place your right hand on the floor with your fingers facing out to support yourself. Bend your left elbow so your hand is pointing up and turn to your right, placing your elbow against the outside of your right knee. Inhale, and then exhale as you twist your torso to the right. Also turn your neck and look over your right shoulder. Hold the position for five slow breaths, then switch sides. After the left side, do each side one more time.

5.  Knee-to-Chest Stretch

This stretch will firm your glutes and also help if you have lower back pain. First, lie on your back with your legs straight. Bend one of your legs and bring your knee up to your chest. Use your hands to pull the knee as close to your chest as you can without discomfort. Keep your other leg in a relaxed position, either outstretched or bent and with your foot on the floor, and hold for 30 seconds. Then perform the stretch on your other leg. Repeat once.

6.  Wall-Assisted Leg Stretch

Here’s a great stretch for your hamstring, which runs along the back of your upper leg. Lie on your back near a door frame or the outer corner of a wall. Raise your leg and rest your heel against the wall, keeping your knee slightly bent. Then straighten your leg until you feel a pull in your thigh. If you want to maximize the stretch, you can try gradually scooting closer to the wall, but stop if it is painful. Hold the stretch for 30 seconds, and then switch sides. Do this twice for each leg.

7.  Leg Lunges

Last but not least is a stretch for your calves, which are especially important muscles for runners. If you want to support yourself with your hands during this stretch, you can stand at arm’s length from a wall. Place your right foot in front of your left foot and bend your right knee. Lean forward slowly while keeping your left leg straight, your left heel on the floor, and your back straight. Hold this position for 30 seconds and then switch legs. Repeat once or twice.


This routine should get you feeling nice and supple and ready to face whatever the day presents. However, there’s no need to stop with these seven. Check out the injury prevention page for more stretches and exercises to keep you healthy, accompanied by video guides!

If we’ve left out one of your favorite stretches, leave a comment and tell us about it. And as always, stay tuned to the blog for more helpful information about exercise, nutrition and health.

20 Healthy Recipes to Try This Summer

July 1, 2015 / 0 comments


Summer is already in full swing and people are taking advantage of the warm weather at the beach, the park, street festivals, baseball games and in our own backyards. Just because it’s grilling season doesn’t mean you have to overload on the burgers, brats and beers however. Here’s a collection of recipes for entrees, salads and desserts to try out this summer as healthy alternatives:


1.   Vietnamese Chicken, Avocado + Lemongrass Spring Roll Salad with Hoisin Crackers.

This recipe is essentially a spring roll broken down into salad form; meaning no time spent trying to perfect your rolling skills. This is a very DIY recipe that allows you to recreate some Vietnamese flavor in your own kitchen. The homemade hoisin crackers and peanut butter dressing alone should impress your guests (or just yourself!)

Click here for the full recipe


2.  Japanese Sunshine Salad with Carrot + Ginger Dressing

A salad consisting of a colorful array of fruits and veggies that make it almost too pretty to eat…almost! The carrot/ginger dressing is just as good as any served at an authentic Japanese restaurant – creamy, sweet and tangy. This recipe is great by itself, but you could serve it alongside any protein – it pairs very well with salmon. You could also throw in some avocado and edamame to add a little more green to the salad.

Click here for the full recipe


3.  Tempeh Black Bean Vegan Taco Salad

Tempeh is a tofu alternative that originates in Indonesia. It’s a traditional soy bean product that is high in both protein and fiber. Throw in some black beans, avocado, lettuce, salsa and the rest of your favorite garnishes and you have a vegan spin on you taco favorite. To double down on the vegan experience you can also top your salad with some cashew sour cream. You’re gonna want to plan for some prep time but I assure you, it’s worth the wait!

Click here for the full recipe


4.  Honeycrisp Salad With Crispy Sage And Maple Vinaigrette

Full disclosure: this salad may not be a lot to look at, but seeing is not always believing; the taste will have you sold. The blend of honeycrisp apples, feta cheese and maple syrup takes a couple different breakfast favorites and combines them into one delectable starter. To add a little bit more breakfast to the equation you could top with honeycrisp salad with slices of bacon.

Click here for the full recipe


5.  Roast Beef & Cheese Cucumber “Sandwiches”

Here’s a quick and easy appetizer to serve your guests that is also healthy and kind of adorable. As far as recipes go I don’t think it gets any simpler than “slice cucumbers, cheese, deli meat and combine.” It’s a mini sandwich without the carbs and you could add some flair to it by sticking it with a toothpick or the ever-inspiring “sword pick.”

Click here for the full recipe


6.  Roasted Cauliflower with Bacon and Garlic

Sometimes it’s reassuring to get exactly what you expect; and this side is just that. After you cook the bacon to your personal bacon standards, all you need to do is roast all of the ingredients together at 375F for 20 minutes. As the old saying goes: “everything’s better with bacon.” Peppering in some grated parmesan cheese gives an extra layer of flavor to this dish.

Click here for the full recipe


7.  Pineapple Shrimp Fried Rice

This is a classic shrimp fried rice recipe with a touch of “sweet and sour” for another level of flavor. If you want to impress your dinner guests with a little presentation and showiness, then may I present to you a serving dish in the form of a hollowed-out pineapple. While this finishing touch isn’t necessary to make the meal, it looks pretty darn cool, right? This is a great and simple dish that brings the sweet and spicy together for an excellent taste.

Click here for the full recipe


8.  Garlic Lemon Chicken Kabobs

Here’s a summer recipe where you can put your grill to good use. This is a super simple meal/side that only requires a few hours for the chicken to marinate and your competence at operating a grill. Lemon juice is a great source of flavor but its zest is what makes the chicken pop. The kabobs are great by themselves but taste even better with some tzatsiki sauce.

Click here for the full recipe


9.  Spinach Quesadillas

Growing up a lot of us had a stigma of spinach – maybe based on the canned variety that Popeye ate. Either way, now spinach is an excellent addition to any given recipe. Like the Tempeh Black Bean Vegan Taco Salad, this is another meatless alternative to a classic Mexican meal. What makes this recipe stand out is its ricotta cheese, successfully thickening the quesadilla. Heat the spinach until its wilted to make it extra crispy.

Click here for the full recipe


10.  Baked Chickpea Burgers

No grill, no meat, no problem. Baked chickpea burgers are a quick and easy meal to make for family and friends that is actually healthy. This Middle-Eastern-inspired recipe is best accompanied by tzatsiki sauce and tabbouleh. With a variety of great flavors, this meatless meal can be made in less than 30 minutes. Who says fast food can’t be healthy?

Click here for the full recipe
11.  Grilled Mahimahi with Peach and Pink Grapefruit Relish

This is another great summer recipe you can use as an excuse to light up the old grill. The sweet flavor of the mahimahi is enhanced by the tangy and tart relish. To give the dish a little bit of a kick you can add some chopped jalapeno to the relish and some lime juice to the fish while it’s cooking. This dish pairs well with white rice and steamed peas.

Click here for the full recipe
12.  Filet Mignon with Roquefort and Red Leaf

There is a whole bunch of flavors at work in this recipe: garlic, rosemary, honey, shallots, onions, balsamic vinegar; it’s almost too much (but it’s not.) To save yourself some prep time you can dice your potatoes a day before and make the majority of the salad while the potatoes and steaks are cooking. Keep an eye on that grill though; you don’t want the filets to lose their succulent flavor!

Click here for the full recipe
13.  Grilled Salmon with Sherry Vinegar-Honey Glaze and Spicy Tomato Relish

Salmon is a lean source of protein that gives your brain the omega-3 fats that you might be neglecting. Grilling the salmon is the simplest part of this recipe – most of your time spent preparing this meal will be preparing the sweet and spicy relish that accompanies the salmon. In fact you could make the spicy tomato relish a day ahead of time to prepare.

Click here for the full recipe


14.  Greek-Style Stuffed Peppers

It always makes me feel healthier when the meat that I eat is covered in vegetables. Zucchini, red bell peppers and spinach make for a colorful dish – fun fact: the more variety of color on your plate less you eat! The recipe calls for bulgur wheat, but that can be replaced with cracked wheat or quinoa. Similarly, the ground beef in the recipe can be swapped out for any ground meat, or no meat at all!

Click here for the full recipe


15.  Grilled Eggplant & Tomato Stacks

As you know by now, the grill isn’t just for meats; here’s another vegetarian option for your grill. Topping grilled eggplant with fresh mozzarella, tomato and balsamic vinegar makes for an appetizing take on bruschetta without the extra carbs of bread. The eggplant can be prepped and refrigerated a day before so all you have to do is top the slices with the remaining ingredients. If you’ve cooked with pesto then you already know how the sauce makes every dish that much better. Che bella!

Click here for the full recipe
16.  Frozen Chocolate Bananas

Ok, time to throw in a little bit of a cheat: frozen chocolate bananas! This is a fun dessert with lots of room for creativity: sprinkles, nuts…you name it! This is a recipe you can make for your kids or just for yourself – it only takes about an hour to make. It might not be the healthiest thing on the list, but it’s better than ice cream!

Click here for the full recipe
17.  Awesome Healthy Orange Smoothies

Smoothies are a great supplement to your workout that taste great too. They are a great source of vitamin C and fiber and promote general bone strength. With a wide array of smoothie shops across the country, it should come as no surprise that there are a variety of different recipes and formulas. These recipes will give you a brand new spin on the orange smoothie and might inspire a concoction of your own.

Click here for the full recipe


18.  Pineapple & pink grapefruit with Mint Sugar

The name says it all for this one – a nice contrast of tart, tangy and sweet. The recipe calls for a full pineapple and grapefruit but you could easily adjust that by picking up cored pineapple or pre-cut pineapple/grapefruit pieces from the store. You could try this basic recipe with all sorts of different fruits to see what your favorite combinations are!

Click here for the full recipe


19.  Simple Baked Apples

This is a great option for any time of the day: breakfast, side dish or dessert. With its blend of spices, apples and nuts this recipe is like apple pie with the calories cut in half. To preserve the moisture of this delectable little snack, cover the apples in foil before baking them – you’ll save yourself some time on cleanup too!

Click here for the full recipe
20.  Anabolic Kiwi-Lime Popsicles

Here’s a dessert option that is sweet, refreshing and healthy. Store bough popsicles are all juice concentrate, sugar and high fructose corn syrup – these homemade popsicles are an alternative that your body will thank you for later. This is a great snack that will prep your muscles for a workout or soothe a sore throat.

Click here for the full recipe


Summer is already in full swing and people are taking advantage of the warm weather at the beach, the park, street festivals, baseball games and in our own backyards. Just because it’s grilling season doesn’t mean you have to overload on the burgers, brats and beers however. Here’s a collection of recipes for entrees, salads and desserts to try out this summer as healthy alternatives.

The Best Vitamins and Minerals for Healthy Bones

May 27, 2015 / 0 comments

Our first post, we dove into the best foods for maintaining bone and joint health, here on the blog. Today, we’re still focused on the topic of how you can maintain and improve your bone health, but we’ll take a look at the specific vitamins and minerals that are most beneficial. Some of them you might already know about, but a few others might surprise you!


Vitamin D

It’s arguable that Vitamin D is the single most important nutrient you can put in your body to ensure healthy bones. This is true for a number of reasons. First, without enough Vitamin D in your system, it might be harder for your body to absorb calcium (arguably the second most important nutrient for bone health — more on that later).

It’s important for growing children to get enough Vitamin D as their bones are developing, and it’s important for adults to get Vitamin D to help maintain that strong bone density. Maintaining healthy bone density becomes more and more important as you age, as your bones might become more prone to breaking.

You can get Vitamin D from three different sources — sunlight, food, and supplements. Because of the risks of skin cancer from too much sun exposure, food and supplements might be the healthiest, easiest way to get your daily dose of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is often added to foods and drinks like orange juice, soy milk, cereal, and other dairy products. To get naturally available sources of Vitamin D, eat plenty of fatty fish like salmon and tuna.



Calcium is one of the most important minerals essential for life, yet our bodies cannot produce it. Therefore, we must find calcium through foods and supplements. If we don’t get enough calcium, our bodies take calcium from our bones to make up for the overall loss, which then negatively affects bone density.

In addition to keeping our bones healthy and dense, calcium helps our blood clot, our muscles contract and relax, and our nerves send signals to our brain — pretty important stuff, wouldn’t you say?

The amount of calcium you need per day varies based on your age. Generally speaking, adults 50 years and younger need 1,000 mg daily, while adults 51 years and older need 1,200 mg per day. So, how do you make sure you’re getting all the calcium you need? It’s all in your diet.

Look for low-fat dairy products like skim milk and 0% greek yogurt for a good source of calcium. Leafy green vegetables, like kale and spinach, are also a great way to work calcium into your diet. If you feel like your diet doesn’t allow for enough natural sources of calcium, you can always take a supplement. The recommended amount of daily calcium is the same as Vitamin D — 1,000 mg for adults 50 years and younger, and 1,200 mg for adults 51 years and older.



There is a strong relationship between magnesium and bone density. The majority of magnesium in adult’s body is found in the bones, and contributes to the strength and firmness of bones, and the hardness of teeth.

Magnesium is different from Vitamin D and Calcium in that it contributes to many different chemical reactions throughout the body. It is essential and necessary in over 300 enzyme systems within the body, and helps to convert Vitamin D into its active form. Then, Vitamin D can begin to absorb calcium. So as you can see, these three vitamins and minerals (Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium), all work together in chain-link to promote bone health.

Eating foods rich in magnesium is key to your overall bone health. Leafy green vegetables, legumes, seeds, nuts, and whole grains are all great sources of this mineral. Similar to calcium, you can find many foods that are fortified with magnesium, like breakfast cereals and mineral waters.


Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 is a lesser known vitamin than any of the others mentioned so far, but it might be just as important in maintaining and improving bone health. While magnesium, calcium, and Vitamin D all work together to regulate bone density, Vitamin K2 plays an essential role in the process as well.

A fat-soluble vitamin, K2 is required to activate osteocalcin, which is an important protein secreted by the body to, simply put, build bones. What’s more, K2 helps remove calcium from places where it shouldn’t be — your arteries, for example. When coupled with other bone-healthy vitamins, minerals, and supplements, K vitamins can help prevent conditions like osteoporosis and heart disease due to its anti-blood clotting qualities.
Do you take supplements to maintain bone health? Do you eat a diet that promotes healthy bone density? Let us know what you do to actively improve your bone health in the comments!

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